Jumat, 30 Juli 2010




In Mangkatip, Dusun Hilir subdistrict capital, precisely in the RT 06 RW II, there is a Dayak cultural sites Ngaju (Bajaju) called Kliring. These cultural objects is a place where the bones of eight (8) Heroes Dayak people who contributed to Ngaju Barito war against Western imperialism. According to information of the heirs, clearing the village is a relic rites Mangkatip Dayak Ngaju tiwah conducting in 1855.

At first adventure Western nation to Mangkatip is Portuguese. The delegation that arrived was the Portuguese who came from the island of Sulawesi kewedanaan Sangir in the North. The Portuguese entered the island of Borneo explorers sailing boat picture of a lion. This ship entered the river from the mouth of the Barito and until finally arriving at the locality of the Dayak village named Bajaju Mangkatip. Arriving in the territory of the  Dayaks, the ship's stoped and then so there was a big brawl. This heroic events took place in 1600 and recorded the entire Portuguese nation to death. So from the Portuguese entry into the river (Barito), it is not surprising that there are researchers who indicate naming history materials into the river Barito river is taken from the name of a Portuguese named Brito.

Next comes the other Western nations are the Netherlands. They came to colonize the archipelago including the islands of Brunei or Borneo. Since the Dutch era and this is known as the Island of Borneo or Hujung Tanah.  River Soil and Materials recognized as the Barito river.

The arrival of Dutch colonial rule was made on an ongoing basis so that one by one kingdom and land of the Dayak subjugated by force of arms. Until finally collapsed in the kingdom of Banjar Banjarmasin which resulted in the outbreak of war to all corners of the Barito River Barito Dayaks along. And one of the top war is Barito Yellow Rice War in 1840, where Dayak troops managed to sink the Dutch war ship "Onrust" in the Gulf of Ur.

These are notes from the narrative of the descendants of the opinion leader or tetuha Kliring. We highly respect this information. So without due respect to the accuracy of traditional history; hereinafter cited the historical record, written with scientific principles.

Traditional History heroic events in the village called Mangkatip occurred in 1600 and recorded the entire Portuguese nation to death. But according INTRODUCTION CULTURAL HISTORY OF INDONESIA, Volume Three, Publisher Canisius Foundation, Yogyakarta, 1981, pages 49-50, Drs. R. Soekmono said that the Portuguese on the "year 1498 under Vasco de Gama arrived in India. In the year 1509 Portuguese ships which first appeared in the airports of Malacca. Due to a dispute in the year 1511, the Malacca battered by people who successfully captured the Portuguese and later used as a base for their trade. Consequently, the Sultan of Malacca, Mahmud Shah, ran away to Bintan to then continue his kingdom in Johor.

With the occupation of Malacca by the Portuguese then seeds of the first Catholic religion in the archipelago. This is the Portuguese from Malacca to the Moluccas continues. They finally managed to get a base in Ternate (1522). Meanwhile the Spaniards appeared also in the Moluccas and gain a foothold in Tidore. With the existence of the Portuguese in Ternate and rivals Spain in Tidore the feud between Ternate and Tidore be sharpened. In the year 1629, the Portuguese and Spaniards reached an agreement to divide their activities: "the Portuguese in the Moluccas and the Spaniards in the Philippines."

As is well known, most of the Moluccas - with Ternate as its center - has long been an area of Islamic religion. With the existence of the Portuguese in the Moluccas was the Catholic religion also evolved. Many times conflicts arise between the two religious adherents-embraces it, even more so because of the Portuguese football lunge who likes to hurt. In the year 1534, the Catholic religion has a strong foothold in Halmahera, Ternate and Ambon. And thanks to Francis Xavier, the mission activities of the three bases that many people embraced the Catholic religion spread until well into the eastern part of Nusa Tenggara and North Sulawesi. "

Meanwhile, in a note Mayur HG, SH, in "WAR BANJAR", Publisher CV. Rapi, Banjarmasin, 1979, page 5: "The Portuguese arrived in the late 16th century and began to instill power in Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan, but to no avail. They just get a position in Halmahera and surrounding islands as he continues to impose monopoly rights in the spice trade to the Sultan of Ternate. At the same time they also took the opportunity to spread Christianity in Banda and Ambon, under the leadership of pastor Xavier. Not long ago in the late 16th century it came also the Spanish, British and Dutch are very attracted to the spice trade and the results of other natural wealth. Finally, among the European nations that arose competition entrants who do not rarely a battle between them. "Hence the establishment in 1600 Mangkatip events should be investigated because the phase has been re-entered the era of Colonialism Netherlands.

Speech stating Yellow Rice War in 1840, where Dayak troops managed to sink the Dutch war ship "Onrust" in the Gulf of Ur also needs to be studied more deeply because HG Mayur, SH in the "WAR BANJAR" states: "In mid-December 1859 following the ship Onrust Van der Velde the leadership of Commander, Lieutenant Bangert, Van Persetel, Van der Kop and his troops do the Barito river railing toward the river Teweh. The ship then stopped in Lontontuor and from here sent a delegation with the aim of pleasing Surapati presumably came to the ship Onrust. The next day ie on December 26, 1859, Surapati use the invitation to come meet the big boats are not covered by several small boats escorted. After the boat docked in the upstream direction the ship Onrust, he then went up to the ship, accompanied by 15 Guardians (panakawan). Surapati greeted by Lieutenant Bangert like when he entertained Surapati in 1867. Together with four sons and daughters in law, came into the room Surapati ship that had been prepared to negotiate. While 10 people panakawan he received by the officers in the room above.

In the negotiations on a Dutch ship wants Surapati willing and handed Prince Antasari because he was the mastermind behind the war so far. Dutch promising honors and gifts to Surapati. They also showed that the Decree has been prepared on his appointment as the Prince. But in negotiations that took ploy Surapati quiet so he let the Dutch parties continue to express their wishes. From the atmosphere of the Dutch parties believe that it remains Surapati uncooperative so they became a little careless of vigilance. On that occasion warships Bangert also boasts so proudly he showed greatness ship. His men also joined the battleship force drugged them so when the Commander of the Van der Velde took a look Surapati cannon, son-in-law who follow Bangert began Surapati suspicious. When Gusti Lias beside the ship arrived with his boat, suddenly drew his sword mandau Surapati's child Ibon screaming sign. Immediately he cut with his mandau to Bangert and he immediately fell down covered in blood. Hearing the shouts that echoed Ibon, lightning and direct Surapati's mandau revoke fight with Van der Velde. Van der Velde fell directly into the body. The officers, soldiers and the crew of the besieged children cooped up indoors Surapati fruit ship. From the boats and from the mainland came leaping subordinates Prince Antasari, Waterford Aria Patty, Tumenggung Mas Anom, Waterford Kerta Patty and child support Surapati fruit attack by the hundreds. Then there was exciting fights in the vessel. The officer and the shooting rampage. Some ran and jumped into the water so easily destroyed, and suffocation.

Finally, the fight for hours on the ship ended. Before the sinking of the ship was successfully seized most of the tools of war and mesiu. But when the ship was sunk just big guns failed to be transported and join the wreck into the water. Only a few days later, the cannon can be lifted from the bottom of the river for use in further strengthening the fortifications. The result, these guns are for one and a half months later exploited by Waterford Arts Antasari and Dutch warships firing came in the upstream Luntontuor so heavy damage upon the crew of Dutch war. And with the success of the sinking ship Onrust Antasari troop morale in the Land of Hamlet has been increasing. Thus it can be ascertained that the success of the Dutch parties would have a reply to exert force on the head Antasari troops stormed the Barito.

Historical evidence, quoted from "Banjar War" by HG Mayur, SH firmly proclaim Surapati Waterford and his army destroyed and sank the battleship Onrust and 93 soldiers on December 26, 1859, not in 1840.

SR, 19-06-2010

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